programme

Comparative Studies in the Labour Relations and Wellbeing, 1600s-2000s

Home/ Comparative Studies in the Labour Relations and Wellbeing, 1600s-2000s
Course TypeCourse CodeNo. Of Credits
Foundation ElectiveSLS2HS2044

Semester and Year Offered: Semester Monsoon and since 2012

Course Coordinator and Team: Dr Dhiraj Kumar Nite

Email of course coordinator: dhiraj@aud.ac.in

Pre-requisites: None

Aim: It moves away from the approach in which the working people occupy a place of importance in the modern industrial world either because of their capacity to disturb the economic rhythm or because they epitomise a social problem of industrialisation. Opposed to the approach which regards the working people merely one of the factors of production and a site of development’s impact, this course discusses how the working people performed a constitutive role in the progression of civilisation. It delves into their experiences with a view towards grasping the nature of ‘real labour’ vis a vis ‘abstract labour’. With the same intent, it analyses the relations of work as well as other aspects of social relations in which the working people were enmeshed. These social relations provided the context in which transactions among workers, the employer/management and the rest of society occurred. The course comments upon various approaches, such as behaviourist, structuralist, Marxian, postmodernist, post-structuralist and feminist applied to the study of productive classes. The latter participated in a transaction of labour power to secure their wellbeing as also confronted its contested definitions. In contradistinction to the ahistorical approach of capability and entitlement to the question of wellbeing, this course dwells on the politics of wellbeing, freedom and progress. It delves into the debates, and reveals to the student the strength, the limitation, and the gaps, as these are, found in the available literature. It encourages the participant to reflect upon both the historical literature and other secondary reference materials.

Course Outcomes: Upon successful completion of the course, it is expected that:

  1. Students acquire the tools of analysis of everyday life, society and economy in terms of labour, land, capital and the wellbeing.
  2. Students get across a discussion on the significance of comparative historical perspectives.
  3. Students learn the concepts and analytical design, as indicated under the subhead of aim and module of the course, useful for comprehending changes and continuities of our world in a comparative context.
  4. Students get a lesson on the reference materials in a critical and comparative manner in order to grasp the sources of divergent viewpoints on historical episodes.
  5. Students get equipped to work out a research plan.

Brief description of modules/ Main modules:

Module 1: The categories of abstract labour, real labour, wellbeing and human life, forms of Labour/ work and Relations in Production (Work Relations)

Module 2, Of Wages, Income, and Efficiency, Of Wage Funds, Relative Surplus-value, and reproduction relations

Module 3, Of Work Time, Extensification of labour vs Intensification of labour

Module 4, Of Work Hazards and Safety

Module 5, Of Family, Community, Gender and Children

Module 6, Of Alienation/Estrangement, and de-alienation

Module 7, Of Wellbeing: its Contours and Foundations?

Module 8, Of Ideas, Religion, Theatre and Leisure

Module 9, Of Labour Migration and Recruitment, a

Module 10, Of the Expression of Social Forces

Module 11, Of Labour Laws and the State-power

Assessment Details with weights:

S.No

Assessment

Date/period in which Assessment will take place

Weightage

1

Written Assignment (WA1)

31 August

35%

2

Presentation of WA1

Second Week of September

10%

3

Written Assignment (WAII)

31 October

35%

4

Presentation of WAII

Second Week of November

10%

5

Class Participation

Class-room Discussion on Lectures and Reading Materials

10%

An assignment should not be more than 1500 words

 

Reading List:

1, Week One: Introductory discussion over the categories of abstract labour, real labour, wellbeing and human life:-

Karin Hofmeester and Pim de Zwart (eds.), 2018. Colonialism, Institutional Change, and Shifts in Global Labour Relations, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Linden, Marcel van der, Karl Heinz Roth and Max Henninger (Eds.), 2014. Beyond Marx, Leiden: Brill.

Antunes, Ricardo, 2014. The Meanings of Work: Essays On The Affirmation And Negation Of Work, Delhi: Akaar Books.

Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 2001/07, Provincialising Europe: postcolonial thought and historical difference (Chapters: Two Histories of Capital; Translating Life-worlds into Labour and History).

Linden, Marcel van Der, 2005, ‘Conceptualising the world working class’, in Bhattacharya, S. and Jan Lucassen (ed.) Workers in the Informal Sector: Studies in Labour History 1800-2000. Delhi: Macmillan.

Upadhyay, SB. 2011. ‘Work and Untouchability: Experiences of Work in Dalit Autobiographies’, in Behal, R. Alice Mah, and Babacar Fall (eds), Rethinking Work: Global Historical and Sociological Perspectives, pp. 23-38. Delhi: Tulika.

Joyce, Patrick, 1993. Visions of the People, Cambridge: CUP.

Williamson, JG, ‘The evolution of global labour markets since 1830: background evidence and hypothesis’, Explorations in Economic history, 1995, vol. 32 (1), pp. 141-196

Bhattacharya, S. 2007. ‘Introduction: Historiography of Indian Labour’, in Behal, RP and Marcel van der Linden (eds), India’s Labouring Poor: Historical Studies, 1600-2000, Cambridge: CUP, 2007, pp. 7-19.

Sen, Amartya, Commodities and Capabilities; The Standard of Living, 1987/1989.

Bruni, L. et al (Ed.), Capabilities and Happiness, Oxford, 2008.

Bhattacharya, S. 1997. ‘The Labouring Poor and their Notion of Poverty: Late 19th and early 20th Century Bengal’, Labour and Development, 3, July 1997, pp. 1-23.

Antunes, Ricardo. 2014. The Meanings of Work: Essays On The Affirmation And Negation Of Work, Delhi: Akaar Books.

Bruni, L. et al (Ed.), Capabilities and Happiness, Oxford, 2008.

Bhattacharya, S. (ed.), 2014. Towards a New History of Work, New Delhi: Tulika Books.

Barbara Harriss-White, 2003. India Working: Essays on Society and Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2, Week Two: Of Wages, Income, and Efficiency: What are its constituent and determinant?

Allen, RC, Jean-Pascal Bassino, Debin MA, Christine Moll-Murata and Jan Luiten Van Zanden, 2011. ‘Wages, Prices, and Living Standards in China, 1738-1925: in Comparison with Europe, Japan and India’. In Economic History Review, Vol. 64 (S1), pp. 8-38.

Hobsbawm, Eric, 1963, The Labouring Men, chapter on ‘Wages and Standard of Living’.

Stephen Broadberry and Bishnupriya Gupta, 2016. ‘Indian Economic Performance and Living Standards, 1600-2000’, in Latika Chaudhary, Bishnupriya Gupta, Trithankar Roy and Anand V Swamy (eds), A New Economic History of Colonial India, New York: Routledge, pp. 15-32

Tirthankar Roy, 2016. ‘The Growth of a Labour Market in the Twentieth Century’, Latika Chaudhary, Bishnupriya Gupta, Trithankar Roy and Anand V Swamy (eds), A New Economic History of Colonial India, New York: Routledge, pp. 179-194

Roy, Trithankar. 2005. Rethinking Economic Change in India: Labour and Livelihood, Oxon: Routledge.

Bagchi, Amiya, 2002.Capital and Labour Redefined: Indian and the Third World, pp. 176-240, New Delhi: Tulika Press.

Bagchi, A. 1981. The Political Economy of Underdevelopment, Cambridge: CUP.

Parthasarathi, P. 2012. Why Europe Grew Rich, Asia Not. i

Parthasarathi, Prasannan. 2005. ‘Agriculture, Labour, and the Standard of Living in Eighteent-Century India’, in Robert C Allen, Tommy Bengtsson and Martin Dribe (eds.), Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe, New York: Oxford Uni. Press, pp. 99-110.

Parthasarathi, P, ‘Rethinking Wages and Competitiveness in the Eighteenth Century Britain and South India, 1720-1800’, Past and Present, vol. 158, February 1998, pp. 79-109.

Tomlinson, BR. 1996. The Economy of Modern India 1860-1970. New Cambridge History of India (Last chapter and conclusion).

Clark, G. 1987, ‘Why is not the Whole World Developed’, Journal of Economic History, 49 (1), pp. 141-73.

Susan Wolcott and Gregory Clark, 1999, ‘Why Nations Fail: Managerial Decisions and Performance in Indian Cotton Textiles, 1890-1938’, The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 59, No. 2 (Jun., 1999), pp. 397-423.

Gupta, Bishnupriya, 2011, ‘Wages, Unions and Labour Productivity: Evidences from Indian cotton mills’, The Economic History Review, 64 (1), pp. 77-98.

Ahuja, Ravi, 2002. ‘Labour Relations in an Early Colonial Context: Madras, 1750-1800’, MAS, vol. 36 (4), pp. 793-826.

Nite, DK, 2014.‘Reproduction Preferences and Wages’, Studies in History, vol. 30, no. 1.

Behal, Rana Pratap, ‘Wage Structure and Labour: Assam Valley Tea Plantations, 1900-1947’, Archive of Indian Labour, VV Giri National Labour Institute, Noida, 2000.

Balachandran, G, 2012. Globalising Labour, Oxford.

Breman, Jan, 1989. Cooly Beast, Oxford.

Prabhu P. Mohapatra, 2009. ‘From Contract to Status? Or How Law Shaped Labour Relations in Colonial India, 1780-1880’, in Jan Breman, Isabelle Guerin and Assem Prakash (Eds.), India’s Unfree Workforce: Of Bondage Old and New, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 96-125

Three: Of Wage Funds, Relative Surplus-value, and reproduction relations:

Kannan, KP, RP Mamgain and P Rustagi (eds.), Labour and Development, Delhi: Academic Foundation, 2017. (Chapter 8. AV Jose, ‘Real Wages in Rural India’, pp. 261-319; Partha Pratim Sahu, ‘How Do Self-Employed Workers in India Perceive Their Earnings’, pp. 321-55; Bishwanath Goldar and Suresh R. ‘Contract Labour in Organised Manufacturing in India,’ pp. 357-86).

Cohn, Samuel, March 1990. ‘Market-Like Forces and Social Stratification: How Neoclassical Theories of Wages Can Survive Recent Sociological Critiques’, Social Forces, vol. 68 (3), 714-30.

Hannan, Lynn, January 2005, ‘The Combined Effect of Wages and Firm Profit on Employee Effort’, The Accounting Review, vol. 80 (1), 167-188.

Fonseca, A. April 1969, ‘Need-Based Wage and its Implementation’, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 4 (4), 411-32.

Carter Tj. July 1995, ‘Efficiency Wages: Employment versus Welfare’, Southern Economic Journal, vol. 62 (1), 116-25.

Rodrik, Dani, Aug 1999, ‘Democracies Pay Higher Wages’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 114 (3), 707-38.

Manning, Alan. 1995. ‘How Do We Know that Real Wages Are Too High? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 110, 1111-25.

Roy, Tirthankar, 2010. Company of Kinsmen: Enterprise and Community in South Asian History 1700-1940, Delhi: OUP, 2010.

Four: Of Work Time: What are its basis and determinant?

Ricardo Antunes, 2013. The Meanings of Work: Essay on the Affirmation and Negation of Work, Leiden: Brill (translated by Elizabeth Molinari).

Paolo Virno, 2004. A Grammar of the Multitude: For an analysis of contemporary forms of life, Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).

Pollard, S. (1965). The genesis of modern management: A study of the industrial revolution in Great Britain. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Pollard, Sidney, ‘Labour in Great Britain’, in Peter Mathias and M. M. Postan (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vii, The Industrial Economies: Capital, Labour, and Enterprise, pt. 1 (Cambridge, 1978).

Hassard, J.H. (ed.), The Sociology of Time. Houndmills: Macmillan.

Thompson, EP, 1967. ‘Time, Work-discipline and Industrial Capitalism, Past and Present, 38 (1), pp. 56-97.

Nigel Thrift, 1996. ‘Rethinking EP Thompson: Time, Work-discipline, and Industrial Capitalism’, Time and Society, vol. 5 (3), 275-299

Roy, D, 1990. ‘Time and Job Satisfaction’, in The Sociology of Time

Zerubavel, E. 1990. ‘Private-time and Public-time’, in The Sociology of Time,

Cohen, S. and L. Taylor, 1990. ‘Time and the Long-term Prisoner’, in The Sociology of Time.

M. Postone, Time, Labor and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory, New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Voth, J. 2000. Work and Time in England in 1750-1830, Oxford, OUP.

Joshi, Chitra, 2005, ‘Formation of Work Culture’, in Lost Worlds: Indian Labour and its Forgotten Histories, New Delhi: Permanent Black. Chapter 4 ‘Work Culture.'

Sumit. 2002. ‘Colonial Times: Clocks and Kali-yuga and Time’ in his Beyond Nationalist Frames: Postmodernism, Hindutva, History. New Delhi: Permanent Black.

Clark, G. 1987, ‘Why is not the Whole World Developed’, Journal of Economic History, 49 (1), pp. 141-73.

Susan Wolcott and Gregory Clark, 1999, ‘Why Nations Fail: Managerial Decisions and Performance in Indian Cotton Textiles, 1890-1938’, The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 59, No. 2 (Jun., 1999), pp. 397-423.

Gupta, Bishnupriya, 2011, ‘Wages, Unions and Labour Productivity: Evidences from Indian cotton mills’, The Economic History Review, 64 (1), pp. 77-98.

Bienefeld, MA, 1972. Working Hours in British Industry: An Economic History, London: Wiedenfeld and Nicolson.

Five: Of Work Hazards and Safety: What are its source and resolution?

Paul-Andre Rosental, Silicosis: A World History, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2017.

T. Roy, Natural Disasters and Indian History, Delhi: OUP, 2012.

Imrana Qadeer and Dunu Roy, 1989. ‘Work, Wealth and Health: Sociology of Workers’ Health in India’, in Social Scientist, vol. 17 (5/6), (May-June 1989), pp. 45-92.

Stewart, P. and DK Nite, 2017. ‘From fatalism to Mass Action to Incorporation to Neoliberal Individualism: Worker safety on South African mines, c.1955–2016’, Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 44 (152), pp. 252-271.

Mukhopadhyay, Asish. 2001. ‘Risk, Labour and Capital: Concern for Safety in Colonial and Post-Colonial Coal Mining’, The Journal of Labour Economics, 44(1): 63—74.

Mills, Catherine, 2010. Regulating Health and Safety in the British Mining Industries 1800-1914, England: Ashgate.

Aldrich, Mark, 1997, Safety First: Technology, Labour, and Business in the Building of American Work Safety 1870-1939, London: Johns Hopkins Uni. Press.

Leger, JP and RS Arkles, 1989, ‘Permanent disability in black mineworkers: a critical analysis’, in South African Medical Journal, vol. 76, 557-561.

Nite, Dhiraj Kumar, ’Slaughter Mining, Yielding Collier: The Politics of Safety in the Jharia Coalfield 1895-1950’, pp. 105-131, in Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt (ed), 2014, The Coal Nation: Histories, Ecologies and Politics of Coal in India, England: Ashgate Publ.

Harrison, B. Not only the dangerous trades: women’s work and health in Britain 1880-1914 (London, 1996).

Marks, S. ‘The silent scourge: silicosis, respiratory disease and gold mining in South Africa’, Journal of Ethnic migration studies, 32, 4 (2006).

Johnston, R. and A. McIvor, Miners’ lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining (Aldershot, 2007).

Burke, G. and P. Richardson, ‘The profits of death: a comparative study of miners’ phthisis in

Cornwall and the Transvaal 1876-1918, Journal of South African studies, 4, 2 (1978), pp. 147-71.

Rogers, Donald W. 2009. Making Capitalism Safe: Work Safety and Health Regulation in America 1880-1940. Urbana: Uni. of Illinois Press.

Six: Of Family, Community, Gender and Children: What are its foundation and function?

Ghosh, Jayati. 2017. ‘Who Works in India? The Implications of Defining Work in the Indian Statistical System’, in KP Kannan, Rajendra P Mamgain and Preeti Rustagi (eds.), Labour and Development: Essays in Honour of Professor TS Papola, Delhi: Academic Foundation, pp. 487-502.

Vijaya Ramaswamy, 2010. ‘Perspectives on Women and Work in Pre-colonial South India’, International Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 7 (1), pp. 51-79.

Mies, Maria. 1998/1986. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale.

Roy, T. 2005. ‘Women and labour’, in Labour and Livelihood: Rethinking Economic Change in India, Delhi: CUP.

Nite, 2014. ‘Familist Movement and Social Mobility: The Jharia Coalfield 1895–1970’, Indian Historical Review, vol. 40, no. 2, 2014.

Nigel Goose and Katrina Honeyman, editors, Childhood and Child Labour in Industrial England: Diversity and Agency, 1750-1914. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2013

Horrell and Humphries, ‘Women’s Labour Force Participation and the Transition to the Male-Breadwinner Family 1790-1865’, the Economic History Review, Vol. 48 (1), Feb 1995, pp. 89-117.

‘the Rise and Decline of the Male Breadwinner Families: Debates’, IRSH, 1997, supplement.

Horrell and Humphries, ‘Old Questions, New Data, and Alternative Perspectives: Families’ Living Standards in the Industrial Revolution’, The Journal of Economic History, vol. 52 (4), Dec 1992, pp. 849-880

Banerjee, Nirmala, ‘Working Women in Colonial Bengal: Modernisation and Marginalisation’ in Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial history, Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid (eds), 1999/1989, Delhi: Kali for Women, pp. 269-301.

Kumar, Radha, ‘Family and Factory: Women in the Bombay Cotton Textile Industry 1919-1939’, in J Krishnamurthy (ed), Women in Colonial India: Essays on survival, work and the state, 1989, Delhi: OUP, pp. 81-110; or in IESHR, 1983, vol. 20 (1).

Sen, Samita. 2003. ‘Politics of Gender and Class: Women in Indian Industries’, in Family and Gender: Changing Values in Germany and India, in M. Pernau, Imtiaz Ahmad and Herlmut Reifeld (eds), New Delhi: Sage Pub.

Sen, S, Woman and Labour in Late Colonial India: the Bengal Jute Industry, 1999, CUP.

Sen, S, 2000. ‘Offences Against Marriages: Negotiating customs in colonial Bengal’, in Marry John ed The Question of Silence, pp. 77-110.

Sen, S, ‘Question of Consent: Women’s recruitment for Assam tea plantations 1859-1900’, Studies in History, 2002, 18 (2), pp. 231-260.

S, ‘Informalising Labour Recruitment: The garden sardar in Assam tea plantation, AILH Conf, 2005.

Engels, Dagmar, ‘The Myth of the Family Unit: Adivasi women in coal mines and the tea plantation in early 20thc Bengal’, in Peter Robb (ed), Dalit Movement and the meaning of labour, 1996, Delhi: OUP, pp. 225-244.

Joshi, Chita. 2005. ‘Between Work and Domesticity: Gender and Household Strategies in Working-Class Families’ in S. Bhattacharya and Jan Lucassen (ed.) Workers in the Informal Sector: Studies in Labour History 1800-2000. Delhi: Macmillan.

Joshi, C. 2006/03. Lost Worlds: Indian Labour and Its Forgotten Histories. New Delhi: Permanent Black.

Alexander, Peter. 2007. ‘‘Women and Coal Mining in India and South Africa, c1900-1940,’ African Studies 66(2&3), pp. 201-22.

Hareven, T. 1982. Family Time and Industrial Time: The relation between the family and work in a New England industrial community. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Mohapatra, Prabhu. 1995. ‘Restoring the Family: Wife Murder and the Making of a Sexual Contract for Indian Immigrant Labour in the British Caribbean Colonies, 1860-1920’, Studies in History, 11, 2.

Anderson, M. 1976. ‘Sociological History and the Working-Class Family: Smelser Revisited’, Social History, no. 3.

Ramaswamy, Vijya, 2010. ‘Women Labour in Medieval India’, JSEHO.

Seven: Of Family, Community, Gender and Children:

Agarwal, B. 1991. ‘Social Security and the Family: Coping with Seasonality and Calamity in Rural India’, in Entisham Ahmad et al., (ed.), Social Security in Developing Countries. New Delhi: OUP.

F. 1891/1973. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Moscow: Progress Publishers.

Jaclyn J. Gier and Laurie Mercier: Mining Women: Gender in the development of a global industry, 1670 to 2005, (Palgrave, Macmillan, 2006).

Kuntla Lahiri-Dutt and Martha Macintyre (eds), Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and others, 2006, England: Ashgate.

Pedersen, S. 1993. Family, Dependence and the Origins of the Welfare State: Britain and France, 1914-1945. Cambridge: CUP.

Sommestad, Lena. 1997. ‘Welfare State Attitudes to the Male Breadwinning System: The United States and Sweden in Comparative Perspective’, in International Review of Social History, vol. 42 (Supplement), pp. 153-174.

Horrell and Humphries, ‘The Exploitation of Little Children: Child Labour and the Family Economy in the Industrial Revolution’, Explorations in Economic History, vol. 32 (4), 1995, pp. 485-516.

Horrell, Humphries and Voth, ‘Stature and relative deprivation: fatherless children in early industrial Britain’, Continuity and Change 13 (1), 1998, pp. 73-115, CUP.

Todd, Selina. 2007. ‘Breadwinners and Dependants: Working-Class Young People in England, 1918-1955’, in International Review of Social History 52 (2007), no. 1, pp. 57-87.

Alexander-Mudaliar, Emma, ‘The ‘Special Classes' of Labour: Women and Children Doubly Marginalized’, 2010, in Labour Matters, eds. Marcel van der Linden

Alexander-Mudaliar, Emma (2004). ‘Labour Regulation or Protection for the Factory Child: Bombay 1881-1920’. Paper at the AILH Conference 2004, V.V. Giri National Labour Institute, New Delhi

Pati, Biswamoy, Enslaved Innocence: Child Labour in South Asia, 2012, Shakti Kak.

Eight: Alienation and De-alienation: Terms of debate

Gooptu, Nandini, ‘Caste and Labour: Untouchable Social Movements in Urban Uttar Pradesh in the Early Twentieth Century’, in Peter Robb (Ed.), Dalit Movement and the Meanings of Labour in India, Delhi: OUP, 1996), in Sumit Sarkar and Tanika Sarkar (eds.), Caste in Modern India, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2014, vol. II, pp. 107-127.

Antunes, 2013, Meaning of Work, Chapter 7.

Linden, Marcel Van der, 2011. ‘Studying Attitudes to Work Worldwide, 1500-1650: Concepts, Sources, and Problems of Interpretation’, in International Review of Social History, Vol. 56, special issue 19, pp. 25-43.

Gooptu, N. 2001, The Politics of the Urban Poor, Cambridge: CUP.

Mukherjee, RK. 1948. The Working Class in India, Bombay.

Allen, VI. 1994. Black Mine Workers.

Moodie, Dunbar, Going For Gold, 1994

Moodie, 2010. ‘A Positive Class Compromise’

Braverman, Labour and Monopoly Capital

Burawoy, M. 1979. Manufacturing Consent. 1985. The Politics of Production

Upadhyay, SB, 2006.

Upadhyay, SB. 2011. ‘Work and Untouchability: Experiences of Work in Dalit Autobiographies’, in Behal, R. Alice Mah, and Babacar Fall (eds), Rethinking Work: Global Historical and Sociological Perspectives, pp. 23-38. Delhi: Tulika, 2011.

Sahana Bhattacharya, 2014.

Taussig, M. 1979, 1986.

Breman. J. Taming the Cooly Beast, Cambridge, 1989.

Nine: Wellbeing: its Contours and Foundations?

Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi, Report of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.

Hawkins, J. 2014. Measuring and Promoting Wellbeing: How Important is Economic Grwoth, ANU.

Bruin, 2008. Capabilities and Happiness.

Sen, Amartya, 2004. Development As Freedom. New Delhi: OUP.

Dreze, Jean and A Sen, 2011. An Uncertain Glory of India, Delhi: OUP.

Sen, A. 1985. Commodities and Capabilities, Elsevier Science Pub., or Delhi: OUP 1987.

Ahmad, Entisham, et al., (ed.), Social Security in Developing Countries. New Delhi: OUP.

Sen, A and J. Dereze, Indian Development, Oxford, 1994.

Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey G. Williamson, ‘English Workers' Living Standards during the Industrial Revolution: A New Look’, in the journal The Economic History Review, Feb 1983, Vol. 36 (1), pp. 1-25.

Roy, T, Chapter ‘Wellbeing’, in The Economy of Early Modern India, 2013.

N. F. R. Crafts, ‘English Workers' Real Wages During the Industrial Revolution: Some Remaining Problems’, in The Journal of Economic History, Mar., 1985, Vol. 45 (1), pp. 139-144.

Allen, RC, 2003. ‘Poverty and Progress in Early Modern Europe’, Economic History Review, vol. 56, pp. 403-43.

Allen, RC, Bengtsson, Tommy, and Dribe, Martin, 2005. Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-being in Asia and Europe, Oxford: OUP.

Allen, RC, 2007. Engel’s Pause: A Pessimist’s Guide to the British Industrial Revolution’, OUP, working paper 315.

RC. 2007. ‘Pessimism Preserved: Real Wages in the British Industrial Revolution’, OUP, working paper 314.

Chandra, Satish. 2008/1987. ‘Standard of Living: Mughal India’, in T. Raychaudhuri and I. Habib (Eds.), Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol. I 1200-1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 458-71.

Fukazawa, H. 1987/2008. ‘Standard of Living: Maharashtra and Deccan’, in T. Raychaudhuri and I. Habib (Eds.), Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol. I 1200-1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 471-77.

Anand V. Swamy, 2016. ‘Law and Contract Enforcement in Colonial India’, in Latika Chaudhary, Bishnupriya Gupta, Trithankar Roy and Anand V Swamy (eds), A New Economic History of Colonial India, New York: Routledge, pp, 218-32.

Ten: Of Ideas, Religion, Theatre and Leisure: What are its substance, form and function?

Parry, J.P. 2008. ‘The Sacrifices of Modernity in the Soviet Built Steel Town in Central India’, in On the Margins of Religion. (Eds.) Frances Pine and Joao De Pina-Cabral. USA: Berghahn Books.

Pinney, Christopher, 1999. ‘On Living in the Kal(i)yug: Notes from Nagda, Madhya Pradesh’, Contributions to Indian Sociology, vol. 33: 77-99.

Joshi, C., 2006, Lost Worlds (chapter on community and religion)

Taussig, Michael T. 1980. The Devil and Commodity Fetishism in South America. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Mohapatra, Prabhu P, ‘“Following Custom”? Representation of Community among Indian Immigrant Labour in the West Indies, 1880-1920’, in India’s Labour Poor: Historical Studies 1600-2000, eds. Behal, RP and Marcel van der Linden, Cambridge: CUP, 2007, pp. 173-202.

Yeo and Yeo (eds.). 1981. Popular Culture and Class Conflict: Exploration in the leisure culture and class conflict. Sussex: Harvester Press.

Samuel, Raphael, 1985, Theatres of the left, 1880-1935: workers' theatre movements in Britain and America, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Ramaswami, Shankar, ‘Masculinity, Respect, and the Tragic: Themes of Proletarian Humour in Contemporary Industrial Delhi’, in India’s Labour Poor: Historical Studies 1600-2000, eds. Behal, RP and Marcel van der Linden, Cambridge: CUP, 2007, pp. 203-228.

Nite, DK, 2016. ‘Worshiping the Colliery-goddess: An Exploration of the religious view of safety in Indian coalminers (Jharia), 1895-2009,’ Contribution to Indian Sociology, Vol. 50 (2), pp. 163-186.

Gyanendra Pandey, 2004/1990. Construction of Communalism, Delhi: Oxford University Press, Chapter 3, ‘The Bigoted Julaha’, pp. 66-108.

Rai, Santosh Kr, ‘Weaving Hierarchies: Production Networks of the Handloom Industry in Colonial Eastern Uttar Pradesh’, Studies in History, vol. 28 (2), 2012, pp. 203-230.

Santosh Kr Rai, ‘The Fuzzy Boundaries: Julaha Weavers’ Identity Formation in Early Twentieth Century United Provinces, Indian Historical Review, vol. 40 (1), 2013, pp. 117-143.

Bidisha Dhar, ‘Mapping Artisan Labour in Lucknow, c. 1860s-1940s’, in Sabyasachi Bhattacharya and Rana P. Behal (eds.), The Vernacularisation of Labour Politics, New Delhi: Tulika Books, 2016, pp. 212-251.

Eleven: Of Labour Migration and Recruitment: its nature and form?

Lucassen, Jan and Leo Lucassen (Eds.), 2014. Globalising Migration History: The Eurasian Experience 16th-21st Centuries, Leiden: Brill.

Knotter, Ad and David Murphy (Eds.), 2015. Migration and Ethnicity in Coalfield History: Global Perspective. In International Review of Social History, Vol. 60 (Special Issue).

Chandavarkar, 2008. ‘The Decline and Fall of the Jobber System in the Bombay Cotton Textile Industry, 1870-1955’, MAS, 42 (1): 117-210

Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan,2006. ‘The War on the Shop-Floor’, in IRSH, vol. 51 (Supplement issue): 263–277.

Roy, Tirthankar, 2008. ‘Sardars, Jobbers, Kanganies: The LabourContractor and Indian Economic History’, in MAS, vol. 42 (5): 971–998.

Sen, Samita, 2002. ‘Question of Consent: Women’s recruitment for Assam tea plantations 1859-1900’, Studies in History, 18 (2): 231-260.

Sen, S, 2005. ‘Informalising Labour Recruitment: The garden sardar in Assam tea plantation’, AILH Conf., 2005, Noida.

Dasgupta, Ranajit. 1994. Labour and the Working Class in Eastern India: Studies in Colonial history. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Company.

Chakravarty, Lalita, 1978.‘Emergence of an Industrial Labour Force in a Dual Economy – British India, 1880-1920’, IESHR, vol. 15 (3): 249-305.

Simmons, CP. 1976. ‘Recruiting and Organising an Industrial Labour Force in Colonial India: The Case of Coal Mining Industry 1880-1939’, IESHR, 13 (4): 455-85.

Mohapatra, Prabhu, 1985. ‘Coolies and Colliers: A study of the agrarian context of labour migration from Chhotanagpur, 1880-1920, Studies in History, vol. 1 (2): 13-42.

Mackeown, Adam, 2004. ‘Global Migration: 1846-1940’, Journal of World History, vol. 15 (2): 155-189.

Lucassen, Leo, 2007. Migration and World History: Reaching a New Frontier, IRSH, vol. 52:89–96.

Moch, LP.2007. ‘Connecting Migration and World History: Demographic Patterns, Family Systems and Gender’, IRSH, vol. 52 (Supplement Issue): 97-104.

Mohapatra, P, 2007.‘Eurocentrism, Forced Labour, and Global Migration: A Critical Assessment’, IRSH, vol. 52: 110-115.

Twelve: Of the Expression of Social Forces: Its contours, foundation, and nature?

Linden, Marcel van Der, 2012, Beyond Marx, Leiden: Brill Press.

Linden, Marcel van Der, 2005, ‘Conceptualising the world working class’, in Bhattacharya, S. and Jan Lucassen (ed.) Workers in the Informal Sector: Studies in Labour History 1800-2000. Delhi: Macmillan.

Breman, Jan 1995. Footloose Labour: Working in India’s Informal Economy, Cambridge.

De Neve, Geert, 2005. The Everyday Politics of Labour: Working Lives in India’s Informal Economy, Delhi.

Jones, 1983/87. Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History 1832-1982, Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press.

EP, 1967. The Making of English Working Class, Penguin.

Sen, Sukomal, 1997. Working Class of India: History of Emergence and Movement. Calcutta: KP Bagchi & Co.

Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 1989. Rethinking Working-Class History: Bengal 1890-1940, Princeton: Princeton Uni. Press.

Bhattacharya, S. and Jan Lucassen (ed.) Workers in the Informal Sector: Studies in Labour History 1800-2000. Delhi: Macmillan.

Breman, Jan 2010, Outcast Labour in Asia: Circulation and Informalisation of the Workforce at the Bottom of the Economy, New Delhi: OUP.

Prakash, Gyan, and DE Hynes, 1992, Contesting Power: Resistance and Everyday Social Relations in South Asia, University of California Press.

Rajnarayan Chandavarkar, 1996, Imperial Power and Popular Politics: class, resistance and the state in India, Cambridge: CUP.

Joshi, C. 2002, Lost World.

Gooptu, N. 2001. The Politics of Urban Poor. Cambridge University Press.

S. 1999. Women Labour in Late Colonial India. Cambridge University Press.

Robb, Peter. 2207. Peasants, Political Economy, and Law. New Delhi: OUP.

Myers, CA, 1958. Industrial Relations in India, Bombay.

Bhattacharya, S, 1986. ‘The Colonial State, Capital and Labour: Bombay, 1919-31’, in S Bhattacharya and R Thapar (Eds), Situating Indian History, Delhi.

Chatterjee, Partha, 2004. The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World, New Delhi: Columbia University Press.

Bhattacharya, S. 2014. The Vernacularisation of Labour Politics, Delhi: Tulika.

Guru, Gopal. 2016. ‘Shifting Category of the Discourses on Caste and Class’, EPW, Vol. 47, pp.

Karuan, DW, 2016, ‘Repertoires of Resistance, the Handloom Weavers of South India, 1800-1960’, IRSH, Vol. 61, 2016, pp. 423-58.

Joyce, P. 1991, Visions of the People, Cambridge University Press.

Ness, Immanuel, 2015. Southern Insurgency: Coming of the Global Working Class, Pluto Press.

13, Week Thirteen: Of Labour Laws and State: Its function and impact?

David A Washbrook, ‘Law, State and Agrarian Society in Colonial India’, Modern Asian Studies, vol. 15 (3), 1981, pp. 649-721.

Ahuja, Ravi. 1999. ‘The Origins of Colonial Labour Policy in Late Eighteenth-Century Madras’, IRSH, 44: 159-195.

Anderson, M.R. 1993, 'Work Construed: Ideological Origins of Labour Law in British India to 1918', in Peter Robb, ed., Dalit Movements and the Meanings of Labour, Delhi: OUP.

Mohapatra, Prabhu, 2005, ‘Regulated Informality: Legal Construction of Labour Relations in Colonial India 1814-1926’, in Bhattacharya, S. and Jan Lucassen (ed.) Workers in the Informal Sector: Studies in Labour History 1800-2000. Delhi: Macmillan.

Simeon, ‘Calibrated Indifference: understanding the structure of informal labour in India’, in Bhattacharya, S. and Jan Lucassen (ed.) Workers in the Informal Sector: Studies in Labour History 1800-2000. Delhi: Macmillan.

Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. 1994. The Origins of Industrial Capitalism: Business Strategies and the Working Classes in Bombay, 1900-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chibber, Vivek, 2007. ‘From Class Compromise to Class Accommodation: Labor’s Incorporation into the Indian Political Economy’, in Labour, Globalization, and the State, ed. Michael Goldfield and Debdas Banerjee (London: Routledge), pp. 32–61.

Mohapatra, 2009. ‘Contract to Status’.

Swamy, A. 2016. ‘Contract Enforcement’.

Roy, Tirthankar, 2011. ’Indigo and Law in Colonial India’, Economic History Review, Vol. 64 (SI), pp. 60-75.

International Review of Social History, 2016. Special Issue.

ADDITIONAL REFERENCE:

Forms of Labour/work and Relations in Production (Work Relations)

A Maritime work

Fisher, Michael H. 2007. ‘Working Across the Seas: Indian Maritime Labourers in India, Britain, and Between, 1600-1857’, in Behal and Linden (eds), India’s Labouring Poor, 2007, pp. 21-46.

Ahuja, R. 2007. ‘Mobility and Containment: The Voyages of South Asian Seamen, 1900-1960’, in Behal and Linden (eds), India’s Labouring Poor, 2007, pp. 111-142

Balachandran, G, 2012. Globalising Labour?: Indian Seafarers and World Shipping, 1870-1945, New Delhi: OUP.

B, Proto-capitalist regimes of work

Lucassen, Jan. 2012. ‘Working at the Ichapur Gunpowder Factory in the 1790s’, IHR, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 19-56, and Part II in IHR, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 251-271.

Lucassen, Jan 2004. ‘A Multinational and its Labour Force: the Dutch East India Company, 1595-1795’, International Labour and Working-Class History, vol. 66, pp. 12-39.

Ahuja, Ravi, 2002. ‘Labour Relations in an Early Colonial Context: Madras, 1750-1800’, MAS, vol. 36 (4), pp. 793-826.

Ahuja, 1998. ‘Labour Unsettled: Mobility and Protest in the Madras Region, 1750-1800’, IESHR, vol, 35 (4), pp. 384-404.

Ahuja, Ravi. 1999. ‘The Origins of Colonial Labour Policy in Late Eighteenth-Century Madras’, IRSH, 44, pp. 159-195.

Moosvi, Shireen, ‘The World of Labour in Mughal India 1500-1750’, in IRSH, vol. 56, special issue 19, 2011.

Haider, Najaf, 2011. ‘Norms of Professional Excellence and Good Conduct in Accountancy Manuals of the Mughal Empire’, IRSH, vol. 56, special issue 19.

Parthasarathi, Prasannan. 2011. Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600-1850, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, especially parts I. and III.

Ramaswamy, Vijya, 2010. ‘Women Labour in Medieval India’, JSEHO.

I Ray, 2011, Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution, London: Routledge.

C, Construction and Earth-workers

Lucassen, J. 2007. ‘The Brickmakers’ Strikes on the Ganges Canal in 1848-1849’, in Behal and Linden (eds), India’s Labouring Poor, 2007, pp. 47-84.

Kerr, Ian J. 2007. ‘On the Move: Circulating Labour in Pre-Colonial, Colonial and Post-Colonial India’, in Behal and Linden (eds), India’s Labouring Poor, pp. 85-110.

Joshi, Chitra, 2009. ‘Fettered Bodies: Labouring on Public Work in Nineteenth-Century India’, in Labour Matters: Towards Global Histories, edited by Marcel van der Linden and Prabhu P. Mohapatra, Delhi: Tulika Books, pp. 3-21.

D, Artisan and HouseholdWorks

D Haynes 2012, Small Town Capitalism in Western India – Artisans, Merchants and the Making of the Informal Economy, 1870-1960, Cambridge: CUP.

Rai, Santosh, 2016. ‘Forms of Organisation and Practices of Mobilisation: Julaha Weavers in Early Twentieth Century North India’, in Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, The Vernacularisation of Labour Politics, Delhi: Tulika Press, 2016, pp. 83-101.

Rai, Santosh Kumar.2012. ‘Weaving Hierarchies: Production Networks of the Handloom Industry in Colonial Eastern Uttar Pradesh’, Studies in History, vol. 28 (2), pp. 203-230.

Rai,2013. ‘The Fuzzy Boundaries: Julaha Weavers’ Identity Formation in Early Twentieth Century United Provinces, Indian Historical Review, vol. 40 (1), pp. 117-143.

Rai, Santosh Kumar, 2014. ‘Family, Neighbourhood and Community: Working Lives of Weavers in Colonial United Provinces’, pp. 137-156, in S Bhattacharya, Towards A New History of Work, Delhi: Tulika.

Dhar, Bidisha. 2016. ‘Mapping Artisan Labour in Lucknow, c. 1860s-1940s’, in Sabyasachi Bhattacharya and Rana P. Behal (eds.), The Vernacularisation of Labour Politics, New Delhi: Tulika Books, pp. 212-251.

Bhattacharya, S, 2013. ‘Rotting Hides and Runaway Labour: Labour Control and Workers’ Resistance in the Indian Leather Industry, 1860-1960’, in Ahuja, Ravi (ed), Working Lives and Worker Militancy: the politics of labour in colonial India, Delhi: Tulika Books, pp. 47-96.

Sarkar, T, 2013. ‘‘Dirty Work, Filthy Caste’: Calcutta Scavengers in the 1920s’, Ahuja (ed), Working Lives and Workers’ Militancy, pp. 174-206.

Kumar, Nita, 1988. The Artisans of Banaras: Popular Culture and Identity, 1880-1986, Princeton: PUP.

Adams, Kathleen M and Sara Dickey (eds), 2000. Home and Hegemony: Domestic Service and Identity Politics in South and Southeast Asia, Ann Arbor.

Neve, Geert De, 2005. The Everyday Politics of Labour: Working lives in India’s Informal Economy, Delhi.

Miryam, DW Karuna, 2014. ‘Caste and Work: Weaving in Nineteenth-Century South India’, pp. 97-120, in S Bhattacharya, Towards A New History of Work, Delhi: Tulika Books.

McBride, Theresa. 1976. The Domestic Revolution: The Modernization of Household Service in England arid France, 1820-1920, New York: Holmes & Meier.

Sen, Samita, 2017. Domestic Days, Delhi: OUP.

E, Plantation work

Mohapatra, Prabhu P. 2009. ‘From Contract to Status? Or How Law Shaped Labour Relations in Colonial India, 1780-1880’, in Jan Breman, Isabelle Guerin and Assem Prakash (Eds.), India’s Unfree Workforce: Of Bondage Old and New, Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 96-125

Behal, Rana, P. 2014. One Hundred Years of Servitude: Political Economy of the Plantation in Assam, Delhi: Tulika Books.

Behal, RP. 2007. ‘Power Structure, Discipline and Labour in Assam Tea Plantations during Colonial Rule’, in Behal and Linden (eds), India’s Labouring Poor, 2007, pp. 143-172.

Behal, 2000. ‘Wage Structure and Labour: Assam Valley Tea Plantations, 1900-1947’, Archive of Indian Labour, VV Giri National Labour Institute, Noida.

Behal and Mohapatra, PP. 1993. ‘Tea and Money versus Human Life’: The Rise and Fall of the Indenture System in the Assam Tea Plantations 1880-1908’, in E. Valentine Daniel, Henry Bernstein and Tom Brass (eds), Plantations, Peasants and Proletarians in Colonial Asia, London: Frank Cass, pp. 142-171.

DasGupta, Ranajit, 1993. ‘Plantation Labour in Colonial India’, in pp. 173-198, in E. Valentine Daniel, Henry Bernstein and Tom Brass (eds), Plantations, Peasants and Proletarians in Colonial Asia, London: Frank Cass.

Dasgupta, R, 1994, Labour and the Working Class in Eastern India, Calcutta.

Sen, Samita, 2016. A Passage to Bondage: The Assam Tea Plantation.

Chatterjee, Piya. 2001. A Time for Tea: Women and Labour on the Plantation.

Bhowmik, Sharit K. 1983. Class formation and the Plantation System.

Breman, J. 1989. Taming the Cooly Beast: Indonesian Plantation.

Taussig, M. 1987. Shamans and …

F, Peasant Labour and Agrarian work

Bhattacharya, Neeladri, The Great Agrarian Conquest, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2018.

Chowdhry, Prem, 2011. Political Economy of Production and Reproduction, Delhi: OUP.

Byres, et al (eds.), 1999. Rural Labour Relations.

Chandra, NK. 1983. ‘Agricultural Workers in Burdwan’, Subaltern Studies II, Delhi: OUP, pp. 228-258.

Das, Arvind N. 1983. ‘Agrarian Change from Above and Below: Bihar 1947-78’, Subaltern Studies II, Delhi: OUP, pp. 180-227.

Bhattacharya, N, 2001. ‘Labouring Histories: Agrarian Labour and Colonialism’, Noida: NLI.

Ramachandran, VK. 2011/1990. Wage Labour and Unfreedom in Agriculture: An Indian Case, Oxford, (chapter: Agricultural Time).

Chandra, NK. ‘Agricultural Workers in Burdwan’, Subaltern Studies II, Delhi: OUP, 1983, pp. 228-258.

Robb, Peter. 2007. Peasants, Political Economy, and Law. Delhi: OUP.

Bose, Sugata, 1993. Peasant Labour and Colonial Capital: Rural Bengal since 1770, Delhi.

Mohapatra, PP. 1991. ‘Class Conflict and Agrarian Regimes in Chotanagpur, 1860-1950’, IESHR, vol. 28 (1), pp. 1-42.

Thorner, Daniel and Alice Thorner, 1965/2012. Land and Labour in India, Bombay.

Prakash, Gyan, 1991. Bonded Histories: the genealogy of the Kamias, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Prakash, G. (ed.). 1992.The World of Rural Labour in Colonial India, Delhi: OUP.

Das, AN. 1987. Worker and the Working Class in India, Delhi: Social Science Institute.

Banaji, J.1977. ‘Formal Subsumption of Peasant Labour’, EPW.

Chaudhuri, Binay Bhusan. 2008. Peasant History of Late Precolonial and Colonial India, Delhi: Longman.

Guha, Sumit, 1985, Agrarian Economy of the Bombay Deccan, CUP.

Stokes, E. BB Chaudhuri, E. Fukazawa and Dharma Kumar, 1983/2006. ‘Agrarian Relations in North and Central India, East India, Western India and South India’, in CEHI, Vol. II. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 39-.

Breman, Ian. 1974. Beyond Patronage and Exploitation: Changing Agrarian Relations in South. OUP.

G, Industrial work

Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 1989. Rethinking, Princeton: PUP.

Chandavarkar, Raj, 1994. The Origins of Industrial Capitalism, Cambridge: CUP.

Simeon, D, 1995. The Politics of Labour under Late Colonialism: workers, union and the state in Chota Nagpur 1928-39, Delhi: Manohar.

Nair, Janaki, 1998. Miners and Millhands: Bangalore and Kolar gold fields, Delhi: OUP.

Sen, Samita, 1999. Women Labour in Late Colonial India, Cambridge: CUP.

Joshi, Chitra, 2004. Lost Worlds, Delhi: Permanent Black.

Patel, Sujata, 1987. Making of Industrial Relations: The Ahmedabad Textile Industry, 1918-39, Delhi.

H, Mining Labour

Nite, DK, 2014.‘Reproduction Preferences and Wages: The Mineworker in Indian Coalfields (Jharia) 1895—1970’, Studies in History, vol. 30, no. 1.

Nite, 2014. ‘Familist Movement and Social Mobility: The Jharia Coalfield 1895–1970’, Indian Historical Review, vol. 40, no. 2, 2014.

Simeon, Dilip, ‘Coal and Colonialism: Production Relations in an Indian Coalfield, 1895-1947’, International Review of Social History, Vol. 41 (supplement issue), 1996, pp. 83-108.

Simeon, D, 1999. ‘Work and Resistance in the Jharia Coalfield, Contribution to Indian Sociology, Vol. 33 (1&2), pp. 43-72.

Nair, J, 1998. Miners and Millhands.

Alexander, Peter, 2007.

I, Overseas [Indentured] Labourers

Kumar, Ashutosh. 2017. Coolies of the Empire: Indentured Indians in the Sugar Colonies, 1830-1920, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mohapatra, Prabhu P. 2007. “Following Custom”? Representations of Community among Indian Immigrant Labour in the West Indies, 1880-1920’, pp. 173-202, in Behal and Linden (eds), India’s Labouring Poor: Historical Studies, c.1600-c.2000, Delhi: CUP.

Swan, Maureen, 1984. ‘The 1913 Natal Indian Strike’, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 10, No.2, April, pp. 239-260.

Halpern, Rick, March 2004. ‘Solving the 'Labour Problem': Race, Work and the State in the Sugar Industries of Louisiana and Natal, 1870-1910’, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 30 (1), Special Issue: Race and Class in South Africa and the United States, pp. 19-40.

Lal, Brij, Girmitiyas: The Origins of the Fiji Indians

Carter, Servants, Sirdars, and Settlers

Hassankhan, Maurits S., Brij V. Lal and Doug Munro (eds), 2014. Resistance and Indian Indenture Experience: Comparative Perspectives, Delhi: Manohar.

Informal Sector Labour

Breman, Jan, 2014. Working in the Informal Economy.

Breman, Jan, 2011. Outcast Labour in Asia: Circulation and Informalisation of the Workforce at the Bottom of the Economy, Delhi: OUP, 2011.

Harris-White, Barbara, 2003. Working India: Essays on Society and Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Neeve, 2005. Everyday Politics of Labour in the Informal Sector, Delhi: Social Science Publ.

Bhattacharya, S. and Marcel van der Linden (Eds.), 2005. Workers in the Informal Economy, Delhi: Tulika Books.

Gooptu,Nandini. 2001. The Politics of the Urban Poor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chari, Sharad. 2004. Fraternal Capital: Peasant Workers, Self-Made Men, and Globalisation in Provincial India, Delhi: Permanent Black.